Volume 02 Issue 01
Special Issue for the Academic Research Activity
Department of Aeronautical Engineering
Rajadhani Institute of Engineering and Technology, Attingal, Trivandrum.
Comparative Study of ICBMS (AGNI 5 and DONG FENG 31)
Abdul Vahab Mohamed Basha, L. Anantha Raman | pp: 01-05 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The Intercontinental ballistic missile is a guided ballistic missile that can carry warheads over a range of 5000 km minimum. They are one of the components of nuclear triad and increases a nation’s nuclear deterrence. This is now a key factor in National power play as well as in defense. Here we are doing a comparative study of two prominent ICBMs Agni 5 and DF-31. The highlighted feature is compared in this paper.
A Study on Fly-by-Wire Flight Control System
Akhil S J, Nivin Francis | pp: 06-09 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Flight control systems are essential for vehicles such as aircraft, helicopters, satellites, launch vehicles, missiles, etc. Electronic and mechanical equipment that allows an aircraft to be controlled with exceptional accuracy and reliability is mean by the control system. A control system includes hydraulic, mechanical and electrical actuators, cockpit controls, sensors, and computer. Fly by wire system are purely electrically controlled control system. Where controls used are computer programmed, the computer system is interposed between the operator and surfaces or final control actuators. This paper will focus primarily on the design and operation of a flight control systems using fly by wire flight control system.
A Proposal of Toshiba 4S Micro Nuclear Reactor Vessel for Future Spacecrafts – Orion Interplanetary Vehicle
Athin S Prasad, Twinky Joseph | pp: 10-13 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The 4S is a sodium cooled reactor without on-site refueling. This was developed as a multi-purpose source for the distributing energy and has many applications. The thermal energy produced through this process can be used for the expansion of propellant disk thus creating an impulse. Normally nuclear power reactors are complex; the probability of accidents is high. But by this reactor both safety and simplicity can be attained. The shutdown of the reactor is easy. Moderator requirement can be eliminated by this design concept.
Study of Wing Properties with Winglets
Akash Ann Sebastian, L. Anantha Raman | pp: 14-18 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The Paper mainly focusing on the characteristics and properties of the wing with winglets. In worldwide all aircraft manufacturers try to improve the efficiency of the Aircraft mainly due to increased operating costs and environmental problems. During cruise condition of a commercial Aircraft, the lift-induced drag is typically 40% of its total drag and it is nearly 85% during take-off configuration. So, it is essential to present the concepts which help to reduce the induced drag. Use of wingtip devices is one effective way to reduce the Induced drag formation. So here a study is done on using winglets and observed the properties of the wing.
Thrust Augmentation Methods in Turbojet Engines – A Case Study
Akhil, L Anantha Raman | pp: 19-23 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Thrust augmentation in a turbojet engine is done to improve the takeoff performance, climb rate and to increase the top speed of aircraft by turbojet engines. Here we discuss the various types and working of the thrust augmentation system with their diagrams.
Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)
Akhil Manoj, Nivin Francis | pp: 24-27 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: FADEC- Full Authority Digital Engine Control it’s an engine control device used in aircraft. Which have no form of manual override in the engine control, the main purpose is automatic engine control. Nowadays it used in aircraft controlling for safety and efficiency of the aircraft. FADEC is fully automated, self-monitoring and self -operated, reduce the workload of the pilot by constantly monitoring the engine parameters and informing engine problems to the pilot on time. The system consisting of electronic engine controller and its parts which control all the aspect of the aircraft engine. The FADEC is kept in the engine casing for easy monitoring and testing of the engine; testing and analysis of FADEC system helps the engine to perform at maximum efficiency.
Pre-sight Study for the Air Transportation System
Arjun A.L., Nivin Francis | pp: 28-32 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In order to reduce the accidents and the injuries caused by the aircraft, the reasons for the deceptive air crashes were studied. An approach of comparison is deployed. In this paper, the Concord aircraft accident was analyzed and detailed to recognize the human error is one of the important among them. Other similar accidents relating aircraft DC-10, Tu-154 were discussed. The conclusion was obtained that the lack of pre-sight for the risk in operation and system management relating to the pilots and the organizations. The conclusion suggests some changes had to be made in complex system management regulations and thinking mode for the general applications to safety.
Aircraft Stability and Control
Arun James, Nivin Francis | pp: 33-37 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Stability of an aircraft means its tendency to return to its equilibrium position after it’s stability has been disturbed. The disturbance may be due to the external forces or the atmospheric phenomena. The stability and control refers to the characteristics of an airplane’s handling and flying quality. Here I am doing the detailed study about the stability and control of an aircraft, by what makes the aircraft stable, how to design control system, what are the conditions. Future scopes of the stability and control is that, it can contribute the system stability improvement ensuring secure and stable operation of the power system in the fighter jet and also in commercial aircraft.
A Study of Superhydrophobic Nature of Lotus Leaves and its Applications on Aircraft
Arya P Mohan, J. V. Muruga Lal Jeyan | pp: 38-42 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Science, like art is not a copy of nature, but a re-creation. Lotus effect is one of the examples for this re-creation. The hydrophobic water repelling characteristics of the leaf is termed as “Lotus Effect” helps the plants to survive in its environment. The surface of the lotus leaves consists of microstructures that repel water and waxy nanostructures that are not easily wettable. These properties made them unique in nature and thus our concern. The surface of an aircraft is always in contact with the atmosphere. The atmosphere contains moisture, dust particles, various corrosive gasses, many types of insects etc. In a normal aircraft surface with or without having coats shows less resistance towards corrosion and ice creation phenomena. Insect contamination is another problem in this category. This study investigates the effectiveness of various hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces in reducing the problem faced by the normal aircraft surface. Surface roughness on aircraft components as a result of ice creation, dust deposition, and insect residues can create aerodynamic instabilities, turbulence and increase drag. Overcoming these problems is essential for the functionality of next generation aircraft. This paper suggests some simple and cost effective methods for reducing these problems.
Possibility of Intelligent Aerospace Vehicles
Gogul Ajay, Twinky Joseph | pp: 43-45 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The possibility of intelligent aerospace vehicles includes Unmanned Ariel Vehicles which can adapt to the environmental conditions and critical situations by itself. These abilities of the vehicle; can perform tasks far better than the existing manual airborne vehicles. These abilities are enabled by pre-loaded scenario library and multiple dynamic sensors. Here a study is carried out about the challenges and opportunities regarding the Possibility of Intelligent Aerospace Vehicles.
Stress Analysis on Composite Strut Landing Gear during Rough Landing
Sujith Stephen, Nithin S Nair, J. V. Muruga Lal Jeyan, Akhila Rupesh | pp: 46-51 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft and is typically designed to support the vehicle only at post -flight. A strut is a structural component designed to resist longitudinal compression. Struts provide outwards-facing support in their lengthwise direction, which can be used to keep two other components separate, performing the opposite function of a tie. The need for lightweight, high performance flying machine has today shifted the emphasis from the use of conventional advanced metallic materials to that of composites. At critical situations for both civil and military aircraft, they are needed to be landed on rough landing surfaces which may cause structural damage to the landing strut. For that specified reason, the landing strut made to be very strong, the main parameter that here to be considered is a strength to weight ratio, the strength of the strut should be very high at the same time the weight should be reduced. For that here we have introduced the strut which is made of composite material which satisfies our requirements. The composite material that we have selected here for our fabrication of strut is glass fiber and carbon fabric of alternate layers and also the structural analysis of landing strut is carried out in ANSYS for various impacting conditions with respect to aircraft weight.
Mechanical Characterization and Damage Mechanisms on Glass and Basalt Composite Laminates
Shruthi M, Akhila Rupesh | pp: 52-56 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The reason of this project is to investigate the characterization and damage properties on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) and basalt fiber reinforced plastics (BFRP). GFRP and BFRP were fabricated. They are tested by universal testing machine and impact test machine according to ASTM standard. The peak energy comprises of the energy consumed by means of elastic deformation and the energy dissipated through damage initiation and propagation. It is unique in relation to penetration impacts when peak energy is constantly lower than energy at failure because of the entire rupture of specimens. Clearly failure energy is solely in charge of the damage initiation and propagation in the specimen. Basalt fiber reinforced plastics tensile and flexural strength is more than GFRP. The experimental results show that BFRP is good for the high temperature applications compared to glass fiber reinforced plastics.
A Case Study of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) or Asteroid Impact Avoidance
Sreenath J, Akhila Rupesh | pp: 57-61 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The asteroids or comets with sizes ranging from meters to tens of kilometers that orbit the Sun and whose orbits come closer to that of Earth’s orbit is known as Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). There are about 600,000 known asteroids are there in our solar system, in that almost 10 000 are NEOs. So, there is a high probability of chances for a major collision that will happen in near future unless defensive actions are taken. Nowadays there are many techniques present for asteroid deflection, in which kinetic impact is a method proven to have some benefits over the other methods. So here we are doing a detailed study about the efficient deflection of near earth objects without the collision between earth and other planets using kinetic impact.
Review on Li-Fi Technology
Gokul S., Bibin Thomas | pp: 62-65 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Nowadays the use of wireless technology has gone a rapid increase which had a drastic increase in network complexity which was obtained as a result of wireless radio bandwidth shortage. This huge rise in radio frequency usage has led to the risk of interference between radio frequencies. Therefore, the thrive for an alternate wireless communication has led to the development of Light-Fidelity or Li-Fi which is a technology that promises to be more fast and secure and also alleviate the problems stated above.
Detailed Study of Fly-By-Wire Control System
Vijeesjith V.P., Akhila Rupesh | pp: 66-70 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Fly-by-wire system which is defined as the electronic system mainly used for a/c. By using this system, we can avoid the manual flight control. The movement of the flight controls is converted into electronic signals through wires.
Anti-Icing System in Aircraft
Jerry Shan Philip, Bibin Thomas | pp: 71-74 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Aircraft anti-icing system is one of the key components to solving the icing-related problems when the aircraft is on air. Considering the long history of aircraft building technologies, the involvement of anti-icing system has a remarkable influence over it. Basically, there exist two types of aircraft anti-icing systems namely, the first one is electro-thermal anti-icing system the second one is bleed air anti-icing system. For propellers, electro-thermal anti-icing system is used and for fixed wing planes the bleed air anti-icing system is used to prevent icing on the wings. Apart from these two anti-icing systems there exist several other anti-icing systems for the prevention of ice formation. It should be noted that anti-icing and de-icing are two different systems with different purposes. A short study of different aircraft anti-icing systems has been carried out for better understanding. The paper shows various aspects and methods of anti-icing systems used.
The Automatic Barrier
Muhammed Rashik M., J. V. Muruga Lal Jeyan | pp: 75-79 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The automatic barrier is a new idea which can be used in one-ways in emergency situations. This system is used in the ordinary barrier in one way road to take the shortest distance by ambulance in emergency situations. This paper describes how a barrier operates with the help of RADIO-FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID).
Fatigue Failure Fiber Reinforced Plastics Under Cyclic Reversed Loading Modes
Naisha Muhammed, J. V. Muruga Lal Jeyan | pp: 80-84 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Failure modes on Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) under fatigue loading and observed using Scanning Electron Microscope. The fatigue behavior was found in three regions and in these regions, the matrix crack initiation, fiber failure and fiber-matrix delamination, fatigue growth during loading process were found. Under cyclic loading, the damage will accumulate in composite materials. This cause the break/crack or functional failure of structures. For isotropic materials with identical in all directions material properties, damages piled up at a low growth rate in the beginning, and a single crack spreads in a perpendicular direction to the cyclic loading axis. The increasing number of cycles causes fiber failure. The matrix and fiber damages results in weakening of the composite specimen. Scanning electron microscope method shows, the damage is constituted by the fracture of the fiber and matrix and identify their growth mechanism under fatigue loadings, scanning electron microscope observations are in agreement with these results as obtained from the experimental test.
Case Study of MIL-STD 1553 Bus Controller Terminal
Presidh L. B., N. Sathesh Raja | pp: 85-87 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: MIL-STD-1553 is an internationally accepted networking standard for the integration of military platforms. Today, the MIL-STD standard has gone beyond its traditional domain of US Air Force and Navy aircrafts to encourage applications for ships, combat vehicles, missiles, satellites and the International Space Station Program, and also for advanced commercial avionic applications. In this journal introduction to the MIL-STD-1553 data bus, its history, working, applications and use are studied.
Comparative Study Between Airbus A380-800 and Boeing 747-8
Rohith S., N. Sathesh Raja | pp: 88-90 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This study is carried down between AIRBUS A380-800 and BOEING 747-8 where, the properties such as range, altitude, and cruise speed, engine, passenger capacity, fuel efficiency and weight of the aircrafts. AIRBUS A380-800 is an improved variant of AIRBUS A380 with an improved airframe structure and an increase in wing twist. BOEING 747-8, being a wide-body jet airliner by the Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the third generation of the 747, which has a high length fuselage, highly modified wings, and has high efficiency. It is the largest among the 747 series which is the largest commercial aircraft built in the United States which is the largest passenger aircraft all over the world.
Emission Control in Turbofan Engine
Shifanamol S.S., N. Sathesh Raja | pp: 91-95 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Aircraft engines produce emissions similar to that from the combustion of fossil fuels. This paper deals with the study of emission control in turbofan engine. The aim is to find & reduce the exhaust emission of the aircraft. The abnormal emissions in substantial amount reaching the atmosphere will create a rise in concerns regarding their impact on the environment and its effect on sea level conditions. A comprehensive assessment of atmospheric problems arising due to the aviation industry is discussed here in this Report on Aviation and its effects on Global Atmosphere.
Comparative Study between HAL TEJAS and SUKHOI SU–30MKI
Vishnu Viswanathan, Akhila Rupesh | pp: 96-98 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In this paper, a detailed study between the two fighter aircrafts, HAL Tejas and Sukhoi Su-30MKI is done. The HAL Tejas is an Indian single-seat jet fighter having a single-jet engine, multi-role light fighter and was combinedly designed by The Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). This was mainly designed for the Indian Air Force and Navy. The Sukhoi Su-30MKI also known as Flanker-H is a twinjet multirole jet fighter and was developed by Russia’s Sukhoi. It was built under the license by India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF).
Survey on River Periyar For the Determination and Analysis of Pollution Rates
Vani Venugopal, Akhila Rupesh | pp: 99-102 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Water is an unavoidable need in our life. Now a day’s water gets more polluted. Most of the rivers, ponds, streams etc. are polluted due to the deposition of industrial wastes, wastes from shops and other domestic wastes. Latest studies show that the water quality and self-purifying capacity decreasing day by day. This paper is based on a survey done to analyze the water pollution level of the river Periyar done randomly at five different sampling points for the various parameter.
Comparison between Sky Deck Design and Windowless Plane Design
Indrajith Prathapan, Bibin Thomas, J.V.Muruga Lal Jeyan, Kalidas | pp: 103-106 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Nowadays the aviation field is looking forward to integrating new technologies with the aircraft to improve the flying experience of the passengers. Innovative designs and creative ideas are welcomed both by the enthusiastic flying ones for different and airline industries Sky deck and the window fewer airplane ideas are the recently developed outstanding conceptual designs in the aviation sector and here we are comparing both technologies to find out their merits, demerits, and their corresponding feasibility aspects.
Case Study of GTRE GTX 35-VS Kaveri
Geo Oomman, L. Anantha Raman, Aditya Sunil | pp: 107-109 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri is an afterburning gas turbine engine that was developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) division of the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). In 1989, the DRDO started developing the GTX-35VS Kaveri engine as an indigenous power plant to replace the General Electric F404 engines that were initially set to power the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), the Tejas, designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The Kaveri Engine has a higher thrust, both dry and wet thrust, than the SNECMA M88. However, due to the Kaveri engine not being able to satisfy the performance requirements for the LCA, and several delays and cost overruns, the GTX-35VS was decoupled from the Tejas programme in late 2008.
A case study of the GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri engine is being done to look at the engine that was developed over the 25-year programme, and the shortfalls of the engine design are being analyzed using information, and documents that have been declassified. The Kaveri project has now been disbanded and has been used as the foundation point for the successors being called the K9+ and the K10, being developed for the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), and the final version of the Kaveri engine respectively.
Study of Aerodynamic Effects of Dogtooth Lex on a Straight Wing
Aravind B A, Nivin Francis | pp: 110-112 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Leading edge extensions are small extension to an aircraft wing which is forward of the leading edge. The main aim of adding these extensions is to improve the airflow over the wings at higher angles of attack and lower air speeds. The effect on lift produced by a dogtooth leading edge extension on a straight wing is studied and is compared with the straight wing of the same configuration. It was found out that there are considerable increments in the performance of straight wing when the same was provided with Dogtooth leading edge extension. The coefficient of lift and stalling angle was improved and it matching the performance done by NACA 2412.
Tensile, Flexural and Impact Behavior Study on Glass / Epoxy Composites
Pooja A.G., J.V. Muruga Lal Jeyan | pp: 113-136 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Fiber reinforced plastics or polymers are used where the design requires weight reduction, precision engineering, and limited tolerances. They are widely used in the field of Aerospace, automotive, marine and construction industries due to their advanced properties. This paper deals with the investigation of mechanical properties and characterisation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics(GFRP) with zero-degree orientation and Chopped Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics(CGFRP). They are tested and fabricated using the Universal testing machine and impact test machine.
MAGLEV Aided Landing and Take-Off (GABRIEL PROJECT): A Revolutionary Concept
Sambhu Prasad, N. Sathesh Raja, Bharath B.S. | pp: 117-120 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Air transport system at the future will address various challenges such as safety, eco-friendly, reliability, cost and time efficient etc. These ones have an impact on the aircraft’s take-off and landing (TOL) process. To deal with it, several methods and techniques are implemented, most of with marginal modifications resulting minimal gains. Therefore, radically new and innovative methods, techniques and structural solutions are required to confront future challenges.
The GABRIEL maglev TOL is based on magnetic levitation to assist aircraft take-off and landing. Unlike from other ground- based technologies, prior studies points that MAGLEV technique can bring out better perks for both the future and present air transportations. This paper mainly spotlights the operational viability of GABRIEL PROJECT (Integrated ground and on-board system for support of the aircraft safe take-off and landing) along with scientific explanations of MAGLEV technique in detail.
Comparative study of F-22 Raptor and Chengdu J-20
Kalidas R, J.V. Muruga Lal Jeyan, Indrajith Prathapan | pp: 121-124 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The F-22 Raptor and the Chengdu J-20 are fighter aircrafts capable of supersonic flight, stealth and extreme maneuverability using in American and Chinese military industry respectively. In this paper, we are comparing these two fighter jet aircrafts to study their merits and demerits over one another. The study is mainly focused on the engines WHITENEY F119-PW-100 (F-22) and SHENYANG WS-10G (J-20) where the parameters such as engine power output, thrust to weight ratio, endurance, afterburner properties, cruising properties and maximum flight speed are considered.
Preparation of Paper Nanomaterials in Aviation Field
Akash Ajai, L. Anantha Raman | pp: 125-127 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Nanotechnology is the engineering of fundamental particles at its molecular level. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to construct items from the bottom size, which mention at its base molecular size, to change particle with the molecular size and replicate it with new nanoparticles. Nanomaterials play an important role in the aviation industry, by building new nanomaterials with high mechanical properties compared to the old one. Here different types of nanomaterials used in aviation field to improve their qualities and properties in the different field of aircraft, such as the airframe structure, aero engine parts and electronics and communication system in the aviation field. Here the application and uses of nanomaterials used in the avionics field are described here.
Comparative Study of BOEING AH-64 APACHE and HAL DHRUV
Rilvansha N, N. Sathesh Raja | pp: 128-132 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This contains about Boeing AH-64 Apache is an American made helicopter. It consists of four-blade and twin-turbo shaft engine with a tail gear arrangement. American Army is the primary operator of the AH-64. It was designed to perform in front-line environments, and to operate at night or day and during adverse weather conditions. The HAL Dhruva is a utility helicopter. It is designed and manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in India. This comparative study analyzes the various aspects of both the aircraft and intends to analyze the pros and cons of both the aircraft.
Comparative Study between Sukhoi Su-30MKI and F-16 Fighter
Jishnu Raj, Bibin Thomas | pp: 133-136 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: A comparative study is carried down between Sukhoi Su-30MKI and F-16 fighter. The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia’s Sukhoi and built under license by India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF).The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).This comparative study analyse the various aspects of both the aircrafts and intends to analyze the pros and cons of both the aircraft.