Ms. Siddhi Naik, Mr. Vineeth Puthran, Mr. Yunus Dalal | pp: 60-64
Abstract: Ground effect is described as the phenomenon where an aircraft experiences an increase in lift and a reduction in drag when flying in very close proximity to the ground or water surfaces. This occurs due to the air pressure differential created between the lower surface of the aircraft’s wings and the ground, also known as ram pressure. As an aircraft approaches the ground, the air displaced by the wings is compressed between the compact portion of the wings and the ground, which increases air pressure, allowing the aircraft to fly more efficiently at lower altitudes. Ground effect is most significant when the wing of the aircraft is at an altitude less than one wingspan above the ground (20-80% of chord length). Certain airfoils like NACA 4412 is a common choice for the wings when it comes to designing a Wing-in- ground effect vehicle at an angle of attack ranging from 3° to 6°. The analysis of the NACA 4412 Airfoil is depicted in this paper at common cruise speeds experienced by Wing-in-Ground (WIG) vehicles at angles of attacks of 6° and 4°.
Factors such as velocity and pressure experienced by the airfoil in those conditions are analyzed. The lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratios are studied as they are the indicators of the efficiency of airfoils.